1 Market Gate
2 Byzantine Fountain
5 Temple of Hadrian
6 Baths of Scholastikia
7 Fountain of Trajan
8 Gate of Hercule
10 Monument of Memnius
11 Square of Domitain
12 Museum of Inscriptions
13 Fountain of Polio
The Bath of Varius is a 2C AD Roman bath complex.
The State Agora, a vast public square remodeled in the mid-1C BC, also
had the function of a basilica.
The Odeon, built in the 2C AD, was used both as a theatre and a bouleterion for civic meetings.
It had a
capacity of 1,400 people.
The Temples of Dea Roma and Divus
Julius (1C AD) were intended for the Imperial Cult.
The Prytaneion was the city hall where political life and also
ceremonies, banquets and receptions took place. In the Hestia Temple, the
Curetes, who were the priestesses of Hestia, were in charge of the sacred
flame burning eternely.
The Memmius Memorial
The Polio Fountain was built in the 2C BC and restored in the 3C AD.
Water was brought here by aqueducs.
The Domitian Temple was the first sacred monument (1C AD) dedicated to
a Roman emperor. Domitian, who was a tyrant-emperor, called himself
The Hercules Gate has two reliefs depicting Hercules wearing a lion
The Curetes Street is named after the priestesses of the Prytaneion.
The Nympheaum of Trajan was built in the 2C AD. The pedestal and the
two feet of the colossal statue of Trajan where water was cascading into a
pool, are among the remains of the huge fountain.
The Terrace Houses, dating from the 1C AD, were luxurious private
houses. Most of them were three-storied and had open-air courtyard. They are
beautifully decorated with frescoes and mosaics.
The Scholastikia Baths were a large three-storied complex
founded in the 2C AD. In the 5C, the baths were restored with stones brought
from the Prytaneion, by a Christian lady named Scholastikia whose statue can
be seen here in a sitting position.
The Hadrian Temple, built in the 2C AD, is a very attractive Corinthian
style temple. The beautiful
columns and arch of the facade of the porch (pronaos) remain as well as the
entrance to the cella. Friezes depicting mythological scenes were added in
the 4C .
The Latrines were part of the Scholastica Baths and were for public
The Private House was a brothel part of the same complex. The statue of
Priapus (the Anatolian god of abundance) found here is now exhibited in the Ephesus Museum.
The Celsius Library was built in the beginning of the 2C AD by Consul
Gaius Julius Aquila, to the memory of his father Julius Celsus Polemaeanus
who is buried here. The Library which has been restored betwen 1975-1980 has
a two storied facade. The inside was composed of a sole hall containing three
stories of niches where rolls and volumes were stored on shelves and inside
chests. An external wall surrounded the building to keep it away from
humidity. The three entrances are flanked by four niches with statues
representing the virtues of Celsus: Sophia for wisdom, Arete for Valor,
Ennoia for thought, and Episteme
The Commercial Agora (market square) was
built in the Hellenistic period and transformed in the 1C and 3C AD. It is
surrounded by stoas behind which were
shops and stores. According to the inscriptions in Greek and Latin of the
south-east triple gateway, this gate was built by two enfranchised slaves
Mazaeus and Mithridathes in honor of August and his wife Livia. A water-clock
and a sundial stood in the middle of the Agora and hundreds of statues
whose basis can still be seen, were erected here.
The Marble Road was originally part of the Processional Road that
stretched as far as the Artemis Temple through the Magnesian
The theatre was originally a 3C
theatre, later transformed (a three storied skene or stage building was added)
and enlarged by the Romans (1C and 2C AD) until it reached its present
seating capacity of 24,000 people. The auditorium rises 30m/100ft above the
The Arcadiane, of Hellenistic origin, was a
600m/1,970 ft long and 11m/36 ft wide colonnaded avenue renovated in honor of
Arcadius in the 5C AD.
The Caves of the Seven Sleepers : the Legend of the Seven Sleepers
states that this is where seven young Christian men and their dog were hiding
from their persecutors, were found and murdered during the reign of Roman
Emperor Decius in the mid 3rd century, and were resurrected 200 years later.
As a result Christian believers wanted to be buried here and a graveyard of
over a thousand graves, tombs and monasteries was formed on this site.
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